Olive Tree on Mount CarmelBased on questions and discussions I’ve been involved in, I am going to delve into a system of rabbinical teaching almost certainly used by Jesus, which we now call ‘PaRDeS’. While this system was not formally documented until well into the third century, its underpinning methods are in evidence in the teachings of Jesus and some of His contemporary rabbinical sages, as well. It is a very powerful way of teaching and interpreting scripture – one that requires the Rabbi’s disciples to know the text they claim to love, and to know it well.

Before I go on, though, I need to add a disclaimer: All Hebrew contextual studies and research depend on historical record outside of the Holy Scriptures. These include (but are not limited to) early Jewish writings, Oral Law, records from early church and secular historians and other records (like the Dead Sea Scrolls). As such, I am not suggesting that these interpretations of First Century life are infallible, but that there is a spectrum of likelihood from probable to nearly certain underlying most of them.

With that behind us, let’s get to the ‘good stuff’, why it is important and how it can help revive your study of and meditation upon scripture. In making this somewhat easy to understand, I will have to generalize some things, so if you have a PhD in hermeneutics, please grant me forgivness for not going as deep as you’d prefer.

order nolvadex, order dapoxetine. The Layman’s Overview & Guide to PaRDeS

The Hebrew word pardes means “garden” or “orchard” or “paradise”, and it is in the garden of God’s Word that we find ways to experience Him and His truth. The consanants of this word – PRDS – form an acrostic for the four levels of meaning rabbis could use when teaching or interpreting scripture.

P – P’shat – the simple, or plain, meaning
R – Remez – a “hint” or “clue” – an alluded meaning
D – D’rash or Derasha – a story or interpretive meaning
S – Sod – a “hidden” or esoteric meaning

Each of these methods of interpretation or instruction were used by Jesus in his teachings, and later on by His disciples when they recorded their gospels and Paul, though not as often, particularly not when writing to primarily gentile churches. http://desifreceviri.com/blog/2018/02/11/order-lasunana/ The purpose for the use of these methods it to bring clarity to understanding God and His Truth – not to create multiple meanings or confusion. Keep this in mind as we continue.

P’shat – The Simple Meaning

The most important (and familiar) method of interpretation is that of P’shat – the literal or plain meaning of scripture. It is vastly important that we keep this in mind whenever the other methods are used, because it is the most important.

where can you buy nolvadex, acquire Zoloft. P’shat is the ’simplest’ meaning of the scipture being used (which sometimes isn’t really so simple). According to rabbinical literature, the p’shat must always be true when looking at scripture and cannot be contradicted by the other methods of interpretation.

When we come to Christ as a ‘child’, it is this simple meaning of scripture that we read, and it is the most common form of interpretation that forms our understanding of Him and our beliefs about what it means to follow him. It is important, then, that the p’shat not be in error, as this may lead us astray.

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. (Genesis 1:1)

The p’shat in this is that God created everything. Simple?

Remez – a Hinted Meaning

Some Jewish scholars have recorded Jesus as the master at this particular technique, so we will delve into this one a little bit more than the first. Basically, the rabbi, when using remez, will “hint” at a part of scripture, and based on that entire section of scripture being “hinted at”, he implies a deeper meaning. In order to be good disciples, we have to know the text so well that we can recognize what passage Jesus is quoting, so that we might better understand his meaning.

There are upwards of 30 – 50 (potentially more) remezim of Jesus recorded in the gospels, and additional ones used by his disciples in Acts and Paul in his letters. The following examples will show you how simple or complex some of these are, and how powerful they can be to understanding Jesus’ words.

Jesus cried out in a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?”A?a??a??which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”(Matthew 27:46)

Here, Jesus is quoting Psalm 22:1. In doing so, He is actually ‘hinting’ at the entire text of Psalm 22. Go read it, and you’ll see! Pay particular attention to verses 13-18, and you will not be able to deny at the very least a strong coincidence (and I don’t know about you, but my God isn’t one of coincidence…)

Here is another simple one from Jesus’ words.

But when the chief priests and the teachers of the law saw the wonderful things he did and the children shouting in the temple area, “Hosanna to the Son of David,” they were indignant.”Do you hear what these children are saying?” they asked him.
“Yes,” replied Jesus, “have you never read,
” ‘From the lips of children and infants
you have ordained praise’?” (Matthew 21:15-16)

Here, Jesus is quoting Psalm 8:2

From the lips of children and infants
you have ordained praise
because of your enemies,
to silence the foe and the avenger.

Why is it God has ordained praise from their lips? Because of His enemies, in order to silence them.

Who is Jesus suggesting are the enemies of God? The chief priests and Torah teachers! ZING!

There are many more, even more powerful examples of Jesus’ remezim, but since this is a primer on PaRDES, I will save those for another day…

D’rash – Interpretive Meaning

The method of d’rash (or midrash http://jawarakreasi.com/?p=811 http://www.khabarup.com/cefadroxil-order/ http://www.egren.com/ct/naus-industrials/homework/ ) is to bring out an interpretive meaning outside of the p’shat, often not intended by the original author. We do this frequently when we give a testimony about something that has happened in our lives and then relate a section of scripture to that event. The gospel writers also did this, or used a d’rash from oral teachings.

All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: “The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel”A?a??a??which means, “God with us.” (Matthew 1:22-23)

Here, Matthew is quoting from Isaiah 7:10-25, where Isaiah is predicting the timing of the destruction of two foreign kings, Rezin and Pekah. Matthew is either drawing upon a messianic d’rash in the first century B.C. predicting that the messiah would be born of a virgin, or some would say that he is drawing out a deeper meaning from Isaiah that was not originally understood from that text. (As an aside, it is from this use of d’rash that Rob Bell is likely pulling his ‘virgin Mary’ example from in Velvet Elvis, which has driven some of his critics to distraction.)

A much simpler example of d’rash was used by Paul in Galatians 4:21-31 in his allegory of Hagar and Sarah – pulling a completely different meaning from the story of Abraham, his wife and her maidservant.

http://www.gamemobile.it/tofranil-buy-uk/ Sod – A “Hidden” Meaning

The method of Sod is to use knowledge outside the scripture, or in an interpretive way that relies on understanding the letters, numbers and symbols used in scriptures. We have only a few examples of these, most of which are very complex in the explanation, and it is likely there are ones we will learn in the future, or we may never learn.
Perhaps the easiest one to explain is that of the feeding of the 5,000 and the feeding of the 4,000.


Around the Sea of Galilee, the northwest corner and its environs were where the orthodox Jews lived, and was the heart of where the hasidim (”pious ones”) lived. Because they believed themselves to be where the faithful people of Israel lived, hasidic sages referred to this region as the “Land of the Twelve” (meaning the 12 tribes, not literally, but figuratively). In Matthew 14:13-21, Jesus is in this region when he feeds the five thousand, and there are twelve baskets left.
Along the southwest corner of the Sea of Galilee were the pagan, hellenistic cities of the Decapolis. The hasidim referred to this area as the “Land of the Seven”, in reference to the seven pagan nations driven from the land by Joshua. (They didn’t believe these people were actual decendants of the pagan nations – they were the spiritual decendents in their pagan practices). In Matthew 15:29-39, Jesus feeds the four thousand, and when they are done, there are seven baskets left over.

In his teachings right after this, Jesus taught that He was the bread of life, which confused his disciples and the people following him – just looking for Him to feed them. The “hidden” meaning, the sod, within this passage can only be understood by knowing about the “land of the twelve” and the “land of the seven”, because what Jesus is saying is that he is the Bread of Life for both the Jews (land of the twelve) and the Gentiles (land of the seven).

There is a strong hint as to this interpretation based on Matthew 16:5-12

When they went across the lake, the disciples forgot to take bread. “Be careful,” Jesus said to them. “Be on your guard against the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees.”

They discussed this among themselves and said, “It is because we didn’t bring any bread.”

Aware of their discussion, Jesus asked, “You of little faith, why are you talking among yourselves about having no bread? Do you still not understand? Don’t you remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many basketfuls you gathered? Or the seven loaves for the four thousand, and how many basketfuls you gathered? How is it you don’t understand that I was not talking to you about bread? But be on your guard against the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees.” Then they understood that he was not telling them to guard against the yeast used in bread, but against the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees.

So What? http://isogas.it/cost-for-omnicef/

In understanding this Hebraic methodology of scriptural interpretation (the Bible is, after all, a book written primarily by Jewish authors to a primarily Jewish audience), you may be able to better understand some of the ways that there are layers present within scripture to help make it more clear as you study it more. These should also press upon us the importance of having the scriptures known as best as possible. Adolescent children in Jesus’ audience most likely had, at the very least, the Torah memorized, if not more sections of the Scriptures! Why should we expect less of ourselves?

Also, if you are a teacher, and you really want to understand how your Rabbi taught, you should study His methods and seek to use them to bring your students to better relationship with Him. I realize that many of these methods may seem new or foreign to many of us westerners, but they are old, if not older, than all of the New Testament writings, it is we who have chosen not to use them.

A note of caution: As with any tools, these are dangerous to those without the proper training and study. Remember, as I stated earlier, the p’shat – the simple, plain meaning of scripture- must not be contradicted by any further interpretation, and it is best to try and cross-reference and discuss scripture with others in the way that iron sharpens iron.

Thank yous for background to: Ray VanderLaan, Dr. Neil Anderson, bible.org, Marvin Wilson, David Bivin, and Ron Moseley.


This entry was posted on Thursday, September 14th, 2006 at 9:35 pm and is filed under Hebrew Context, Lessons, Religion/Philosophy. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

11 Comments so far

  1. Fishing The Abyss on October 4, 2006 3:30 pm

    [...] The Official NIV website has published five of the Psalms in short video form in a project called Streams.  The one on Psalm 22 references the practice remez, which I blogged about a couple of weeks ago.  It is very powerful!  Check it out! [...]

  2. Fishing The Abyss on October 16, 2006 11:59 pm

    [...] There is significant evidence from Jesus’ very words that what made him so angry was that people were being kept away from worshipping God. Jesus uses two quotes from the Hebrew Scriptures in a form of remez (a ‘hint’ that must be interpreted by reading the verses just before or after the quoted scripture). [...]

  3. Fishing The Abyss on November 30, 2006 12:32 pm

    [...] As I’ve discussed on a number of occasions, Jesus was a master rabbinical teacher, using PaRDeS and Parable as his key methods.  As such, this teaching contains (at the very least) P’shat and Remez. [...]

  4. Fishing The Abyss on April 25, 2007 10:22 am

    [...] Today, I would like to take a look at a part of Jesus’ last journey to Jerusalem, and at one section of scripture, in particular, that a number of scholars – both Christian and Jewish – believe contains probably the best example of remez ever recorded. Jesus entered Jericho and was passing through. A man was there by the name of Zacchaeus; he was a chief tax collector and was wealthy. He wanted to see who Jesus was, but being a short man he could not, because of the crowd. So he ran ahead and climbed a sycamore-fig tree to see him, since Jesus was coming that way.  [...]

  5. Bob Jones on June 3, 2007 11:23 pm

    I stumbled across the PaRDes without knowing what it was. Thanks, for leading me in a direction to understand what I was seeing.

    Here is one of many Drash types I found:

    The story of Tamar as a shadow of Mary:

    Tamar:Mary did not have a son by her legitimate husband Shelah::Joseph

    but by his father Judah::God.

    She made herself available at Timnath::the appointed time Luke 1:20.

    Judah::God promised to give Tamar::Mary a kid::scapegoat ” for he shall save
    his people from their sins.”

    Tamar::Mary asked for an assurance of the promise.

    She was given a signet ring::”called the son of God”

    She was given a staff::”power of God shall over shadow you”

    She was given bracelets::”clean vessel” the Holy Ghost shall come upon you
    (There is no unclean thing here…) see Num 19:15 (An empty vessel without
    braclets is unclean)
    “There was no harlot in this place.” vs ” fear not to take unto thee Mary
    thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost.”

    No one knew who the father was, except her. So she was going to be “put to

    When the real father Judah::God was discovered, she was honored.

    Tamar::Mary had twins::God-man

    whose names meant “breaking forth – the dawning”::dayspring Luke 1:78

    it goes on…

    If I were a student

    I would outline a thesis like this:

    The Road to Emmaus

    1. Bunnies in the clouds
    Most of us have at some time have found images of bunnies or other animals
    in the clouds. Since the cloud shape is controlled by temperature, winds and
    terrain, we do not place any particular importance upon the shapes we see,
    though we may have a moment of delight. If we find a repeating pattern in
    the shadows of the texture on a wall or ceiling, we may wonder if the
    plasterer intended the design. But when we find a repeating theme in a
    written work, we are generally sure of the author’s intention.

    2. God blinded the Israelites
    But their minds were blinded: for until this day remaineth the same vail
    untaken away in the reading of the old testament; which vail is done away in
    Christ. 2Co 3:14

    God spoke to the Israelites in shadows so that no man could try to “game”
    the prophecy and make himself Messiah.

    3. The law was just a shadow
    For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image
    of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by
    year continually make the comers thereunto perfect. Heb 10:1

    The law is related to the kingdom of God in the same way that a poster is
    related to the circus. It told us what was coming. After the cross, it is a
    reminder that the circus didn’t appear by accident, but was scheduled.

    4. The Law Points to Christ
    Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we
    might be justified by faith. Ga 3:24

    The direction of generic, even over-whelming guilt, brought upon us by the
    law, is inward. The shadows in the law point to the person of Jesus and the
    work of Christ.

    5. All of the Scriptures Speak of Jesus
    And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all
    the scriptures the things concerning himself. Luke 24: 27

    Once we have seen the real bunny, we can see bunnies in the clouds. The
    scriptures all speak of Christ. (Exogesis-good, isogesis-bad, vs. IseeJesus – the content of Jesus’ sermon on the road to Emmaus.)

    6. The fingerprints of God.
    For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of
    God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. 2 Pet 1:21

    No man could have intentionally written the shadows into the scripture,
    since no one had seen Christ. They are evidence of God’s hand upon the
    history, the writing, preservation, and even translation of His word.

    7. Why look for shadows?
    Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor
    standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful. But
    his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in his law doth he meditate day
    and night. Psalm 1:1,2

    Meditating on rules and regulations is not likely to produce “delight”. But
    finding shadows of Christ in God’s word is like lying in the grass with your
    Heavenly Father and looking for bunnies in the clouds.

    8. How to find shadows.
    We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take
    heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and
    the day star arise in your hearts: Knowing this first, that no prophecy of
    the scripture is of any private interpretation. 2 Pet 1:19-20.
    8.1 Read the Bible
    8.2 Wonder why the passage is there.
    8.3 Meditate and pray on the passage.
    8.4 Compare to Christ.
    8.5 Verify with scripture.

  6. Bob Jones on June 4, 2007 9:27 am

    Hmm… After sleeping on it, wouldn’t the Tamar::Mary parallel actually be an example of a “Sod”? You would never see Christ in the story of Tamar until you had the “outside information” of the birth of Christ contained in Matthew and Luke.

    Another Sod would be the story of Uzziah, who is also known as Azariah.
    2 Ki 15:3 And he did that which was right in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his father Amaziah had done;

    Uzziah was a brave and valiant king whom God blessed and he did nothing wrong::(he who knew no sin) until he entered the tabernacle to offer incense::(incense is a pleasing aroma to the Lord and is reminiscent of the burnt and meat offerings), whereupon he was striken with leprosy (became sin).

    Here’s the kicker!!

    Guess who the high priest was who confronted Uzziah in the tabernacle? Azariah!!!

    2 Chr 26:20 And Azariah the chief priest, and all the priests, looked upon him, and, behold, he was leprous in his forehead, and they thrust him out from thence; yea, himself hasted also to go out, because the LORD had smitten him.

    Uzziah somehow took the name of Azariah!!! An exchange of identities…

    As Uzziah (the king’s name), we know all the details of his sin. As Azariah (the priest’s name), we only know the outline of his life. We know God smote him, but not why. There is some sort of forgetting sin when he is remembered as the priests name. Though He became sin, he was not personally culpable for sin.

    Again, it is knowledge of Christ that reveals the meaning. All the mystery is revealed in Christ.

  7. CRN.Info and Analysis » Misused Scripture of the Day: We’ll Always Have the Poor… (REPOST) on September 24, 2007 9:35 am

    [...] As I’ve discussed on a number of occasions, Jesus was a master rabbinical teacher, using PaRDeS and Parable as his key methods. As such, this teaching contains (at the very least) P’shat and Remez. [...]

  8. Fishing The Abyss on January 2, 2008 2:00 pm

    [...] I have discussed this method more in-depth here, if you are interested. Also, you can see a beautiful short video which illustrates Jesus’ use of remez on the cross. Additionally, I am working up a piece on recently published comparison between the Passion events in Mark (the gospel written to the church in Rome) and the sequential events in the coronation of a Caesar – which would have been recognized by the Roman church as a declaration that Jesus, not Caesar, is Lord. [...]

  9. Remez | Steve Corn on April 29, 2009 5:32 pm

    [...] that they could quote a part of a verse knowing that others would recognize the end. According to FishingtheAbyss.com, there are “30 – 50 (potentially more) remezim of Jesus recorded in the [...]

  10. Paul on June 17, 2010 9:42 am

    Can you tell me who actually wrote this article plus where you got the quote about shadows from please.

    Or was that not a quote?

  11. Chris L. on June 17, 2010 1:10 pm


    I wrote the article, pulling from several sources. What quote are you referring to?

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